|CANONICAL(5)||File Formats Manual||CANONICAL(5)|
canonical - Postfix canonical table format
postmap /etc/postfix/canonical postmap -q "string" /etc/postfix/canonical postmap -q - /etc/postfix/canonical <inputfile
The optional canonical(5) table specifies an address mapping for local and non-local addresses. The mapping is used by the cleanup(8) daemon, before mail is stored into the queue. The address mapping is recursive.
Normally, the canonical(5) table is specified as a text file that serves as input to the postmap(1) command. The result, an indexed file in dbm or db format, is used for fast searching by the mail system. Execute the command "postmap /etc/postfix/canonical" to rebuild an indexed file after changing the corresponding text file.
When the table is provided via other means such as NIS, LDAP or SQL, the same lookups are done as for ordinary indexed files.
Alternatively, the table can be provided as a regular-expression map where patterns are given as regular expressions, or lookups can be directed to TCP-based server. In those cases, the lookups are done in a slightly different way as described below under "REGULAR EXPRESSION TABLES" or "TCP-BASED TABLES".
By default the canonical(5) mapping affects both message header addresses (i.e. addresses that appear inside messages) and message envelope addresses (for example, the addresses that are used in SMTP protocol commands). This is controlled with the canonical_classes parameter.
NOTE: Postfix versions 2.2 and later rewrite message headers from remote SMTP clients only if the client matches the local_header_rewrite_clients parameter, or if the remote_header_rewrite_domain configuration parameter specifies a non-empty value. To get the behavior before Postfix 2.2, specify "local_header_rewrite_clients = static:all".
Typically, one would use the canonical(5) table to replace login names by Firstname.Lastname, or to clean up addresses produced by legacy mail systems.
The canonical(5) mapping is not to be confused with virtual alias support or with local aliasing. To change the destination but not the headers, use the virtual(5) or aliases(5) map instead.
The search string is folded to lowercase before database lookup. As of Postfix 2.3, the search string is not case folded with database types such as regexp: or pcre: whose lookup fields can match both upper and lower case.
The input format for the postmap(1) command is as follows:
With lookups from indexed files such as DB or DBM, or from networked tables such as NIS, LDAP or SQL, each user@domain query produces a sequence of query patterns as described below.
Each query pattern is sent to each specified lookup table before trying the next query pattern, until a match is found.
This is useful to clean up addresses produced by legacy mail systems. It can also be used to produce Firstname.Lastname style addresses, but see below for a simpler solution.
This form is useful for replacing login names by Firstname.Lastname.
Note: @domain is a wild-card. When this form is applied to recipient addresses, the Postfix SMTP server accepts mail for any recipient in domain, regardless of whether that recipient exists. This may turn your mail system into a backscatter source: Postfix first accepts mail for non-existent recipients and then tries to return that mail as "undeliverable" to the often forged sender address.
The lookup result is subject to address rewriting:
When a mail address localpart contains the optional recipient delimiter (e.g., user+foo@domain), the lookup order becomes: user+foo@domain, user@domain, user+foo, user, and @domain.
The propagate_unmatched_extensions parameter controls whether an unmatched address extension (+foo) is propagated to the result of table lookup.
This section describes how the table lookups change when the table is given in the form of regular expressions. For a description of regular expression lookup table syntax, see regexp_table(5) or pcre_table(5).
Each pattern is a regular expression that is applied to the entire address being looked up. Thus, user@domain mail addresses are not broken up into their user and @domain constituent parts, nor is user+foo broken up into user and foo.
Patterns are applied in the order as specified in the table, until a pattern is found that matches the search string.
Results are the same as with indexed file lookups, with the additional feature that parenthesized substrings from the pattern can be interpolated as $1, $2 and so on.
This section describes how the table lookups change when lookups are directed to a TCP-based server. For a description of the TCP client/server lookup protocol, see tcp_table(5). This feature is not available up to and including Postfix version 2.4.
Each lookup operation uses the entire address once. Thus, user@domain mail addresses are not broken up into their user and @domain constituent parts, nor is user+foo broken up into user and foo.
Results are the same as with indexed file lookups.
The table format does not understand quoting conventions.
The following main.cf parameters are especially relevant. The text below provides only a parameter summary. See postconf(5) for more details including examples.
Other parameters of interest:
cleanup(8), canonicalize and enqueue mail postmap(1), Postfix lookup table manager postconf(5), configuration parameters virtual(5), virtual aliasing
Use "postconf readme_directory" or "postconf html_directory" to locate this information.
DATABASE_README, Postfix lookup table overview ADDRESS_REWRITING_README, address rewriting guide
The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.
Wietse Venema IBM T.J. Watson Research P.O. Box 704 Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA Wietse Venema Google, Inc. 111 8th Avenue New York, NY 10011, USA